21 Different Types of Wood Planes

Different Types of Wood Planes
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There are several different types of wood planes available for woodworking occupation. Being one of the world’s oldest occupations and pastimes, woodworking continues to evolve via the invention of new and better tools.

However, there is an adage that if something isn’t broken, it’s not worth fixing, and this adage can easily be applied to many woodworking equipment.

While they may better suit power drills and various forms of power circular saws for auger drills and other saws, a competent manual hand plane defies this trend.

Also, while power planes are plentiful, you give up a lot of precision and control for faster, more effortless action.

While this trade-off may be acceptable for general contracting work that you will likely hide, it is insufficient for significant woodworking tasks.

This article delves into the modest wood plane, dissecting various manual wood planes and their applications.

Hand woodworking planes come in various shapes and sizes, each with its purpose. The most common types of hand wood planes are listed here.

Table of Contents

1. Bench Planes

Bench planes are the workhorses of hand planes. However, unlike the other planes on this list, they aren’t a single tool. But rather a category in which numerous hand planes are grouped.

This misunderstanding generates a lot of confusion, especially among inexperienced woodworkers who don’t realize that a bench plane might be called a fore plane, jointer plane, or smooth plane by an experienced woodworker.

Electric bench heaters are also known as bench planes. Also, the hand plane, a type of bench plane that spans five to thirty inches tall, is the most common workhorse in the hand plane family. The blades on them are beveled down at a 45-degree angle.

Furthermore, these are reinforced by a cap iron, which also assists in preventing clogging in the mouth. Benches planes are numbered, and the differences between each individually numbered size might be the subject of an entire article.

However, several famous planes, such as four planes, jointer planes, and smoothing planes, are termed bench planes.

2. Block Planes

Block planes are similar to smoothing planes in that they are smaller than the other types. But block planes take this to a whole new level.

Also, Block planes range from 3 to 7 inches, whereas smoothing planes are minor wood planes that most individuals will have in their workshop. This is one of the different types of planes.

Given their small size, it’s only natural that you’d utilize a black plane rarely and only in instances where such a sophisticated tool is required.

One thing to bear in mind is that block planes remove substantially less wood than other types of wood planes due to their compact size.

Furthermore, A bevel-up blade is also used in block planes, allowing you to achieve extremes on the angle scale. This implies that you may use a shallow angle to slice through the end grain when smoothing it out. But it also works well for cleaning up previously used workpieces.

3. Moulding Planes

These planes, designed for work on molding and edge trim, are among the most durable planes, with some surviving in operation after more than a century of care.

As its name suggests, the molding plane works on molding and trim. These planes are frequently built of wood and are exceedingly durable. Molding planes are also essential furniture-making equipment since they allow precise detail work.

4. Smoothing Planes

A smoothing plane, despite its name, is not used for flattening wood. Which is one of the initial planning operations in preparing dimensional lumber.

Instead, a smoothing plane is used as one of the final processes in constructing a woodworking project– possibly immediately before you treat the wood if you intend to. Also, this is one of the different types of wood planes.

The smoothing plane’s name makes sense because these wood planes are used to smooth off the finishing touches and provide a polished surface.

You can use a smoothing plane to smooth away minor rough patches in a limited area. Producing a finish comparable to– or even better than– sandpaper.

5. Jack Planes

Jack planes are the “Goldilocks” of the wood plane family since they are neither too large nor too small. Because of this, the jack plane can perform far more tasks than the smoothing or jointer planes. Which are the two other significant types of bench planes.

Furthermore, it’s worth mentioning that some intermediate woodworkers believe they can get by without using a jack plane, preferring instead to use the jointer plane for bigger workpieces and the smoothing plane for smaller ones.

While someone with adequate expertise could pull it off, it is not recommended for the best results or the most efficient working pace.

6. Plough Planes

These planes can cut grooves and rabbets since they have a fence and a depth gauge. A 35-degree angle is put on the blade. A wall and a depth gauge are included with plough planes, which allow you to cut grooves in your wood and rabbets around the edge for tongue and groove jobs.

7. Rabbet Planes

The Rabbet Plain has been around for generations, designed specifically for cutting rabbit joints. The blade protrudes just a smidgeon from the tool’s sides, providing a square cut with reduced bonding risk.

The rabbet plane is designed for carving rabbet grooves along the edges of the boards. These planes are typically 10 inches long, with a somewhat broader blade than the tool to allow for square cuts. This is one of the different types of wood planes.

8. Jointer Planes

Outside of the scrub plane, commonly overtaken by motorized wood planes, jointer planes are among the most significant wood planes used for woodworking jobs.

The jointer plane is typically the first-hand tool wood plane that a woodworker will acquire from the workshop to begin preparing dimensional lumber. 

9. Bevel Up Planes

Bevel Up Planes aren’t technically a new form of a plane because they can be found in almost every plane on this list.

On the other hand, a bevel-up plane has a blade with the bevel on the top side of the blade rather than the bottom, which acts as a built-in chip breaker.

Bevel up planes also have a unique design that allows for different use, such as a grip that favors a four-finger grasp.

Furthermore, the various adjustment points are positioned differently on a bevel-up plane. With the blade adjustment, use a smaller knob that needs you to stop working on modifying.

10. Joinery Planes

There are too many joinery planes (as opposed to jointer planes) to cover them all, but the most important thing to remember is “specialization.”

The fundamental distinction between a joinery plane and the other types of wood planes discussed here is that each is designed to work with certain joints.

11. Shoulder Planes

For example, the shoulder plane has a blade that rests flush with the body’s sole and is usually used for dadoes and tenon joints.

As the name implies, the rabbet plane allows you to cut rabbets into the wood by cutting half-groove cuts with a blade that emerges out of the side of the body.

12. Bull-Nose Planes

Bull-nose planes are shorter, ranging from 3 to 4.5 inches in length. It has a slim body and a slightly broader blade.

This tool may be used to get rid of rabbits and is helpful for detailed work. For cutting across the grain, the low-angle blade is razor-sharp.

The lower angle of the blade on the bullnose Plane allows it to cut along the end grain and grain, eliminating rabbets. It derives its name from the metal’s “nose,” a natural stop at the blade’s front.

As a result, it works best on rabbits that don’t stretch the entire length of the piece. Some models are adjustable, while others include a nose that you may remove.

13. Chisel Plane

Chisel planes are unique in that they don’t have any guard at the front of the blade. This enables them to clean the edge of a cut where other planes cannot.

Chiseled planes don’t have a front guard, allowing them to reach places other planes can’t. These planes are simple in design and easy to operate. This is one of the different types of wood planes.

14. Combination Planes

You can use the combination plane’s interchangeable cutting blade to perform tasks other planes typically perform. You can make the tool seem like molding or a rabbet plane with a few changes.

One of the drawbacks of many specialist tools is that an amateur artisan cannot afford to purchase the entire set.

Combination planes contain an interchangeable cutter that allows them to handle the responsibilities of numerous more specialist tools, such as rabbets or molding planes, despite their rarity.

15. Compass Planes

The compass plane, also known as a circular plane, features a curved sole that can be adjusted to allow you to use it on a curved surface. These planes can fly where other planes can’t, but they require some practice.

The spherical Plane, one of the more interestingly shaped aeroplanes, has a curved sole that is often movable. The Planes can now be used on curved surfaces and details.

16. Japanese Planes

The Japanese use a somewhat different method, whether a pulling hand saw or a hand plane. Another Japanese philosophy applied to woodworking hand tools is the Japanese plane, which focuses on greater precision above raw “force.”

Japanese planes are meant to be dragged rather than pushed like their other woodworking hand tools, as with western planes.

As a result, Japanese planes tend to shave off substantially less material than their Western counterparts. While this ensures that you do not gouge or remove too much material by accident, it also means that you must use more strokes, and this method increases the time and energy needed to do the same work. 

Furthermore, Japanese planes frequently have a more straightforward appearance than western planes, with a solid wood body and few adjustments.

This is a double-edged sword because Japanese planes are otherwise very direct to fly, but they are also limited in individual plane scope.

Still, because it simply takes a couple of taps on the blade from each direction to adjust it, its basic design is suitable for both beginners and masters. This is one of the different types of wood planes.

17. Finger Planes

A finger plane is a small tool used to flesh out details on small objects like tools and remove excess adhesive. Because these are not adjustable, you may need to purchase multiples to complete each operation.

Although the artisan’s studio has a selection of flat and curved soles, you cannot modify them. The blades are very narrow because they are primarily used for thin boards.

18. Fore Planes

Foreplanes are enormous, measuring 14 to 20 inches in length, and usually are the first-hand plane. A plane slams into a rocky surface, which removes material quickly and partially straightens the item because of its size.

These planes are used to level up uneven boards, which swiftly remove the wood and prepare it for more sophisticated tools. Also, you can use it to level out some boards slightly.

19. Router Planes

This oddly shaped Plane is made for reaching into corners and leveling the bottoms of depressions in detailed work that would generally necessitate the use of chisels.

The router plane can move around corners and flatten diving bottoms. This aircraft is gradually becoming obsolete due to modern hand tools, although they may still be found in many workshops.

20. Scrub Planes

The scrub is designed to remove explicit material quickly. It features a large handle and a sharp blade for preparing larger boards for different types of aircraft.

These Plans, created for ripping work, quickly eliminate material, allowing you to switch to your preferred planes after a large board is trimmed to size.

21. Levelling Planes

Leveling planes are the second most prevalent planer in most workshops and are essentially identical to the jointer plane. This enables them to cover a larger area while simultaneously having a far tighter cut than their competitors.

This Plane is a little wider than the others to cover more ground with each pass. Straighteners can also be cut on broad surfaces, and this is one of the different types of wood planes.

The forward Plane and the combined Plane are two other planes considered leveling planes.

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