10 Different Types of Stones Used in Construction

Types of Stones

Many different types of stones can be used as construction materials, including basalt, marble, limestone, sandstone, quartzite, travertine, slate, gneiss, laterite, and granite.

Building stones should be firm, robust, and rugged, with no weathered soft spots of material, fissures, or other faults that reduce strength and durability.

Quarrying from huge solid rocks yields stones for construction.

Many of these goods can be classified as Natural Stone or Man-Made Stone, the simplest way to describe them.

Natural stone is any rock found in nature used for construction or decoration.

Like all rock, natural geological processes created it over thousands, millions, or even hundreds of millions of years.

Each type of stone lends itself to various construction purposes based on its qualities.

Certain varieties, such as basalt and granite, offer better properties, such as compressive solid strength and durability, and are thus used in big construction projects. 

However, some stones, such as gneiss, are acceptable for small construction activities due to their properties (such as poor compressive strength and the presence of toxic elements in their constituents).

As a result, stones are employed as a building material and a decorative element. So, please read on as we discuss some of the different types of stones.

1. Basalt

by James St. John is licensed under CC BY 2.0

Basalt stone, sometimes called traps, is widely utilized in road building, concrete manufacture, and rubble masonry for bridge piers, river walls, and dams.

The basalt stone structure is compact and medium to fine-grained.

This stone’s compressive strength ranges from 200MPa to 350MPa, and its weight ranges from 18KN/m3 to 29KN/m3. 

Furthermore, Basalt is weather-resistant, moisture-resistant, extremely hard, and challenging to fashion into refined shapes. Basalt ranges in color from dark gray to black.

2. Granite

Photo by AKuptsova on Pixabay

Granite is a type of igneous rock. AlsomGranite is a challenging and long-lasting material. It also comes in a variety of hues.

Granite is utilized in construction projects such as steps, walls, kitchens, door and window frames, etc. However, It’s not meant to be used for carving.

Also, Granite’s specific gravity ranges from 2.0 to 2.7, and its compressive strength ranges from 770 to 1300 kg/cm2.

It can be found in a variety of locations. This is one of the different types of stones.

3. Sandstone

by jared is licensed under CC BY 2.0

In the construction of massive structures, sandstones are combined with silica cement. This is one of the different types of stones.

It’s used in masonry, dams, bridge piers, and river barriers, among other things.

It comes in various colors, including white, grey, red, buff, brown, yellow, and dark gray, and is made of quartz and feldspar.

The compressive strength ranges from 20 to 170 MPa, with a specific gravity of 1.85 to 2.7.

It should be noted that sandstone is inappropriate for building construction due to deterioration.

4. Slate

by CharlesFred is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

The building capabilities of slate vary greatly depending on the sheets’ thickness and the rock’s color. Slate is one of the different types of Stones.

Furthermore, Roofing tiles, slabs, and pavements are all made of it. Quartz, mica, and clay minerals make up this mixture.

Slate’s compressive strength varies between 100 and 200 MPa, and its hue ranges from dark gray to greenish-gray, purple-gray and black. Slate has a fine-grained structure with a specific gravity of 2.6 to 2.7.

5. Limestone

by Bernard Spragg is licensed under CC CC0 1.0

Limestones, in general, aren’t suitable for construction. Undesirable kinds include a lot of clay or are very soft, making them unsuitable for building.

Dense, compact, and fine-textured types free of voids and fissures may be dressed and polished.

Furthermore, Limestone is used as a base material for cement and flooring, roofing, and pavements.

Also, limestones should not be used as face stones in areas where the air is polluted with industrial pollutants or in coastal regions where salty breezes might damage them.

6. Travertine

by Darkroom Daze is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

Another example of a calcareous stone is travertine. It’s one of the different types of stones that arise from a chemically distinct sedimentary stone, allowing larger crystalline formations to grow through many microscopic holes in the stone’s body.

These holes are frequently sealed with cement or epoxy during slab manufacturing, giving travertine its distinct appearance.

Like marble and other limestones, Travertine is best used indoors, away from the thermal shock of sudden and large temperature fluctuations.

7. Laterine

by Sanjay P. K. is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

Laterite is a building stone, but it must be plastered on the outside. It has a high iron oxide content and may be easily cut into blocks.

Laterite comes in soft and hard variants, and its compressive strength ranges from 1.9 to 2.3 MPa, with seasoning increasing its strength.

Laterite comes in various colors: brownish, red, yellow, brown, and grey.

8. Marble

Photo by marcelideler on Pixabay

It’s employed in columns, flooring, and steps for facing and ornamental work. Marble’s compressive strength ranges from 70 to 75 MPa.

Marble stones are rigid, have a consistent texture, are less porous, and polish well.

It’s simple to cut and carve into various shapes. Marble comes in a variety of colors, including white and pink.

9. Gneiss

by James St. John is licensed under CC BY 2.0

Because harmful elements in its constituents make it unsuitable for building construction, this stone is only utilized for small construction.

On the other hand, complex gneiss stone variants can be used in construction.

Furthermore, compression strength ranges between 50 and 200 MPa. It comes in various colors: light grey, pink, purple, greenish-gray, and dark grey.

10. Quartzite

by James St. John is licensed under CC BY 2.0

It’s used to make building blocks, slabs, and concrete aggregate. Also, this is one of the different types of stones.

Quartzite has a fine to coarse grain structure, is mainly granular and branded, and is primarily made of feldspar and mica in minor amounts.

Also, Crushing strength ranges from 50 to 300 MPa. They come in various colors, including white, gray, and yellowish.

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